Sunday, August 27, 2017

War: Antifa Plans Nationwide Terror Attacks For November

From our friend Susan Duclos at All News Pipeline

War: Antifa Plans Nationwide Terror Attacks For November


Gunpowder Treason and Plot?


Gunpowder Treason and Plot?



Big Brother to Aid Tobacco Companies

August 27, 2017

By Anna Morris, Co-Editor, FFOA News Network

   In yet another hysterically draconian move to further the UN/WHO goal of controlling people through public-global health via tobacco restrictions, our FDA may have just given a big boost to the tobacco companies.  Now you may not be interested in tobacco issues but the whole story presents a general picture of what happens when everything becomes a "public health" issue to be controlled by government.

     On July 28, 2017 the FDA, using its Obama-given power over tobacco, decided that mandating low nicotine cigarettes will help "vulnerable populations". Please note this act is aimed at a least functioning level of society; millions will be affected in order to minister to special, downtrodden populations. Obama Care and its new healthtocracy works that way. Individual health no longer matters and has been replaced by "population health" which used to be called "public health." Public health used to be concerned with keeping roaches out of restaurants and sewage out of drinking water. Public health as population health allows government agencies to regulate...well...anything that MIGHT affect health and that means EVERYTHING.

     There is some older research that shows smokers of lower nicotine, "light" cigarettes smoke more and inhale deeper to maintain desired nicotine levels. Nevertheless psychiatry professor Stephen Higgins of the Vermont Center of Behavior and Health (UCBH) at University of Vermont (UVM), is quoted thus in an article posted at Science Daily, "Evidence in relatively healthy and socially stable smokers indicates that reducing the nicotine content of cigarettes reduces their addictiveness." [1]

     Note the word "evidence" at the beginning of Professor Higgins' statement.  The FDA seems to have based its call to mandate low nicotine cigarettes on "evidence based" conclusions rather than proven fact. The Obama Care infestation of transformation uses that term a lot and near as I can tell it means circumstantial evidence is all that is needed to re-write medical books, form law and create public policies affecting millions. (Personally I would get laughed off a few true crime forums to which I belong if I presented conclusions based merely on evidence. Nevertheless, "evidence based" works fine for government when it holds all our lives in its wicked talons.)

     Again, you may be thinking, who cares about the nasty cigarette habit and the tobacco companies the public has been taught to hate?  The UN/WHO international War on Tobacco is just a starter. Sugar is next in their global cross-hairs. Have you noticed the itty-bitty soda can six packs at eye level in grocery stores? I call these miniscule cans the Michelle Obama size since her main project as First Lady seemed to be telling us what to eat. The two litre bottles are now usually found on top shelves, sometimes nearly out of a tall man's reach. 

     Have you listened to the sniveling, slurping, backside licking ads put out by major soda producers who practically apologize for ever using ANY sugar in their products, while pushing their bottled waters and tiny cans as the only reasonable choices? Maybe those whining soda companies expect government law suits such as happened to the tobacco industry. After all, evidence says sugar causes diabetes and more evidence says diabetes costs society at large.  Other evidence shows that government has made medical care unaffordable for the average person, thus it becomes more true that most sick people are to some extent, burdens on society. Further evidence indicates government loves it when helpless people scream for more big government to fix the problems big government created in the first place. Sick people are cited as "burdens" whenever more restrictive public health laws are desired by big government.

     Those same sick burdens, especially the "disadvantaged" ones, make wonderful human lab rats when big government needs the evidence based claptrap upon which to base those laws.

     The FDA decision to lower nicotine in cigarettes is based on a study of, "169 daily smokers" from "three vulnerable populations of smokers--individuals with psychiatric disorders (i.e. affective disorders, opioid-use disorder), and socioeconomically disadvantaged women." [1] The study ran at various locations from March 2015 to April 2016. Of the 169 vulnerable participants, 120 were women, 49 male. 56 participants, "were diagnosed with affective disorders," 60 had opioid dependence and 53 were, "socioeconomically disadvantaged women." That's a short study with a very small sample of people but who's counting when government needs to restrict our freedoms? You can bet new drugs would never be approved with such limited research!

     The study, described as, "multi-site, double blind," had three phases. In Phase 1 participants smoked their brand and/or low nicotine, "research cigarettes". While smoking the latter, "Participants were required to use a plastic cigarette measure smoking topography--number of puffs, length and speed of each puff," according to the Science Daily article. The research cigs had varying doses of nicotine. [1]

     Each smoking session was followed by a Cigarette Purchase Task (CPR), "to measure the effects of cost on the participant's rate of smoking," states the article. [1]

     Phase two had participants choosing what they wanted to smoke from six dose combinations. Data was fed into a computer and on to Phase 3 which was pretty much like Phase 2. (Gosh, don't we wonder who funded this thing and how many millions of dollars it cost?)

     The findings were that smokers preferred the high nicotine cigs which are available commercially. BUT researcher also claim that low dose cigs might be chosen if they cost less! Or as is stated in the article low nicotine cigarettes, "could serve as economic substitutes for higher-dose commercial-level nicotine cigarettes when the cost of the latter was greater." [1] Well, duh! Poor people buy cheaper things. The authors of the research paper say field testing of this theory is underway to determine feasibility under "'naturalistic smoking conditions'". 

     What about that old research that said smokers smoked more and inhaled deeper when cigarettes contained less nicotine? Well, circumstantial evidence...uh...evidence based rewriting of past research now declares this to be untrue! Although that may depend on what source you check. Do we get the idea this evidence based stuff blows with the wind, or the political party, or in favor of furthering private goals? What if that old research is correct after all? Left-wing Progressives love the word "SAFE" and they plan to keep us safe through tyrannical legislation. Is it SAFE to throw out older research based on a new, one year study of 169 mental patients, addicts and poverty stricken women?

     Lite and low-tar cigarettes of old had tiny vents in the filter that cut the amount of tar and thus nicotine, available per puff. There may be problems with the engineering of these smokes that make them more dangerous than regular but we need not explore that here. 

     What is of interest is the old research newly reported as late as July 6 of this year in a publication by Roswell Park Cancer Institute, "because vented cigarettes deliver less nicotine, smokers may take deeper or more frequent puffs to satisfy their nicotine cravings. [2] The same article goes on to say, "evidence strongly suggests" vented cigarettes which now include most cigarettes sold in the U.S., "may actually increase a smoker's risk," of developing a certain type of lung cancer. (Emphasis mine.)

     A article from 2002 quotes David M. Burns, MD, professor of medicine, UC San Diego, citing "new" findings  from the National Cancer Institute, "Smokers smoke for nicotine, and if a cigarette delivers less nicotine, smokers compensate by taking larger puffs, more puffs per cigarette and smoking more cigarettes per day to get the same nicotine." (Emphasis mine.) [3]

     No less an expert than Harvard Medical School published a short article covering the same subject, from 2004 but updated January 23, 2017. Low-tar, vented, lite cigarettes did not reduce the risk of lung cancer because addicted smokers find ways to compensate to get the full nicotine fix. This article describes the original study as, "six years and involved 900,000 Americans over the age of 30." [4]

     A scholarly paper from 2013, based on a number of small group, short term studies, claims that smokers do not smoke more if nicotine content of cigarettes is decreased! [5]  Low nicotine from vented cigarettes is bad but big government mandates low nicotine tobacco is good? More recent news articles discussing the July 28 FDA proposal for requiring low nicotine cigarettes and other tobacco products, tout this idea and some refer to the small study first mentioned above. The basic idea is that if nicotine levels are low enough, cigarettes will no longer be addictive. Time will tell.

     And so major government policy is based on newly manufactured "evidence" obtained from a small group of mentally ill or poverty wracked human lab rats who would agree to smoke low nicotine cigarettes if they cost less! Want to bet the low nicotine variety will cost less? It sounds like the FDA plans to lower nicotine content in all tobacco products to the point where they are not addictive, to save the children, other vulnerable populations as well as pander to the UN/WHO globalist hysteria on tobacco which, according to more evidence based claptrap, causes almost all illness and death in the world. (Never smoke and live forever, is that what they are saying?)

     Heaven knows how those poor human lab rats were worked on psychologically! It is like the statistics that claim most smokers want to quit. Under pressure in a medical setting, of course smokers who are terrorized, shamed and belittled by their doctors and nurses, say they want to quit. Those doctors, nurses and researchers ought to listen to what dedicated smokers who have no desire to quit, say about the medical profession behind closed doors. The smart ones lie about tobacco use and avoid the intimidation!

     Considering tossing the old evidence that was gathered from studying nearly a million smokers for many years, in favor of new evidence based on small samples of short duration, designed to further political goals, may not keep the population SAFE. Put into practice in the draconian ways of government, the unintended consequences may well be increased cigarette sales as smokers across the board and outside of the lab, double or triple their intake of smoke in search of the nicotine fix! 

     Should this crazy idea work for cigarettes, expect alcohol-less alcoholic drinks next, like near beer and mostly-water lite vodka. Alcoholics Anonymous has always claimed an alcoholic cannot have even one drink, watered down or otherwise. One drink is never enough for the alcoholic, so the saying goes. Apparently this principle does not apply to cigarette addiction? Perhaps with FDA regulation, one cigarette will never be enough, so smoke three or four! 

     Expect cigarette sales to go up as the public perceives the new, FDA approved cigarettes as safe and as smokers exponentially increase their intake to get the same effect. The anti-tobacco hysteria comes from the left and in their participation trophy world, they love to say WIN/WIN. It does appear that Big Brother plans to help out the tobacco companies but it is all a WIN/WIN thing. You can bet the low nicotine cigarettes would never be cheaper in the real world, as was suggested in the pitiful study cited above. In the tax hungry, government laden REAL WORLD, tobacco taxes will probably go up, low nicotine content will drive smokers to smoke more and buy more, and that's a WIN/WIN for tobacco companies AND government! Thank you, Big Brother!



[1] "Cite this page: Larner college of medicine at the University of Vermont. 'Could nicotine reduction 
      help curb addiction? Study examines impact on vulnerable smokers.' Science Daily, 23 August, 2017

     Cigarettes Now Linked to Rise in Lung Cancer; Richard O'Connor, PhD, July 6, 2017

[3] ; Switching to Low-Tar Cigarettes Fails to Reduce Risk of Tobacco-Related Diseases, January 1, 2002

[4] ; Lower Tar Cigarettes Are Not a Safer Choice, Published 8/2004, Updated 1/23/2017.

[5] ; Reducing the nicotine content to make cigarettes less addictive,  Neal L. Benowitz and Jack E. Henningfield, May, 2013.


ANTIFA Plan Nationwide Riots On Nov 4th To Forcibly Remove Trump






Wednesday, August 23, 2017

Must Watch Jesse Watters Destroy Hateful Bitter Dem Still Reeling After ...


John Stossel - Black Victimhood


US Freedom Army

August 23, 2017

By Lewis Shupe, Contributor, US Freedom Army

The Roaring Twenties

“I have no trouble with my enemies but my damn friends, they’re the ones that keep me walking the floor nights.”      Warren G. Harding

“How can they tell?”    Dorothy Parker upon being informed that Calvin Coolidge had died.

In 1920 the Republican from Ohio Warren G. Harding (1865-1923) was elected on the promise of a “return to normalcy.” After the whirlwind eight years of Woodrow Wilson apparently the nation was ready for his conservative, affable and “make no enemies” campaign. One of the reasons for his smashing electoral victory was his effective use of the new media, radio. Harding was at best a mediocre president who did little but he would sign laws put forth by the Republican controlled Congress and that made his term in office reasonably successful in reversing some of the actions of the Wilson administration.

Harding’s legacy was determined primarily by the people he appointed to positions of trust – the choices were either outstanding or horrible. Harding made some great choices including Charles Evans Hughes as Secretary of State, Herbert Hoover as Secretary of Commerce, Andrew Mellon as Treasury Secretary and, most importantly, Calvin Coolidge as Vice-President. Coolidge was famous for his actions as Governor of Massachusetts in the Boston police strike and people were ready for someone with a no nonsense approach to problems. On the other side of the equation Harding appointed many of his political cronies to key positions and these people kept the Harding administration scandal filled. His worst appointments were Harry Daugherty, his campaign manager, as Attorney General and Albert Fall as Interior Secretary. The Justice Department was a constant source of scandal and Albert Fall was subsequently sent to prison for his role in the Teapot Dome scandal. There was no evidence that Harding was ever personally involved in anything improper but his political cronies, the “Ohio Gang”, made his administration a misery.

Harding assumed office while the nation was in the midst of a postwar economic decline, referred to as the Depression of 1920-21. Harding’s Treasury Secretary, Andrew Mellon, ordered a study that demonstrated as income tax rates were increased, money was driven underground or abroad (USFA note: see “The Laffer Curve”) and concluded that lower rates would increase tax revenues. Tax rates were reduced annually in four stages from 1921 to 1925 and revenues to the treasury increased substantially and unemployment also continued to fall. The combined declines in unemployment and inflation were among the sharpest in U.S. history. Wages, profits, and productivity all made substantial gains during the 1920s ushering in the period known as the Roaring Twenties.

On August 2, 1923 Harding died somewhat unexpectedly from a somewhat mysterious heart ailment. His death made his Vice-President, Calvin Coolidge (1872-1933), the 30th President of the United States. While most of the nuts and bolts legislation revising the Wilson presidency came from Congress, Harding was at least an enthusiastic cheerleader and supporter for the changes and did sign the bills. This mini-reversal of the descent into socialism was continued and supported by his successor.

Coolidge restored public confidence in the White House after the scandals of his predecessor’s administration and left office as an extremely popular president. Coolidge, elected in his own right in 1924, gained a reputation as a small-government conservative and a person who embodied the slogan “That government is best which governs least.” Coolidge was also known as a man who said very little in private but very much in public, holding 520 press conferences during his administration (that is about one every four days for you math majors).

Coolidge disdained regulation and proved it by appointing commissioners to the Federal Trade Commission and the Interstate Commerce Commission who did little to restrict the activities of businesses under their jurisdiction. The regulatory state under Coolidge was “thin to the point of invisibility.” While Coolidge supported many measures as Governor of Massachusetts he did not support these measures as President because he correctly realized that these measures were, under the United States Constitution, the function of state and local governments. Due to the reductions in Income Tax passed during the period 1921-1929, the federal debt was substantially reduced. Coolidge opposed the McNary-Haugen farm bill saying that agriculture must stand “on an independent business basis” and declaring it as unsound and likely to cause inflation (people actually worried about inflation once upon a time in America).

1921-1929 was the only time from 1901-2017 that the descent into socialism was somewhat reversed. This was greatly facilitated by the fact that these were the only two presidential terms when Republicans controlled both houses of Congress during this entire eight-year period and there was a Republican President. This situation has never occurred again since that time. If the nation had retained such conservative leadership for eight more years the Great Depression would probably have not occurred and the socialist policies inaugurated by subsequent administrations would have been greatly muted. Alas, it was not to be. A good trivia question is: “Who was the last Conservative President whose party controlled both houses of Congress during his entire term in office?” The answer is Calvin Coolidge.

The Harding/Coolidge era showed what can be done when government reduces taxes, balances the budget, lowers regulations, and generally stops meddling in the private sector. The economy boomed, the deficits disappeared, the national debt was greatly reduced and almost paid off and people enjoyed a level of prosperity not seen in America for many years. The Roaring Twenties were a tribute to Conservative and Constitutional government.


Coolidge was eligible to run for reelection in 1928 but chose not to do so. This would prove to be a decision that would have disastrous effects for America since his successor, Herbert Hoover, proved himself to be what we would call today a RINO (not a Conservative) and acted in ways that caused the stock market crash to turn into a depression. We will talk more about Hoover in another post and why his decisions proved disastrous for the nation and subsequently for the Republican Party.

A few Coolidge quotes are in order here:

“Collecting more taxes than is absolutely necessary is legalized robbery.”
“Don’t expect to build up the weak by pulling down the strong.”
“Civilization and profit go hand in hand.”
“If you don’t say anything, you won’t be called upon to repeat it.”    


MSNBC’s Race Baiting Goes Beyond Full Libtard


Trump hammers critics, energizes base at Arizona rally


Saturday, August 19, 2017

Rush Limbaugh says we may be "on the cusp of a second civil war"


Murder of a Nation!

August 18, 2017

By Lynn J. Cheramie III, Founder, FFOA News Network

The Masters of Chaos attack America from every direction so that THE PEOPLE have no idea what is happening. When hornets buzz out of their underground holes and swarm to the attack, their victim feels only the massive amount of stings and has no concept of individual attackers. So it is with our country, stung daily and hourly by the likes of Antifa, ethnic supremacists, our own media and elected representatives who ignore the will of the people to keep the DC swamp full and festering.

As we hurl the stingers of words, insults, accusations and actual shit at each other our country is being ripped apart. It appears that no one encouraging the ripping apart process even knows what they're doing or much less cares as long as they get what they think they want! I underline the word think because we all need to search our hearts and start thinking before we take any action or make any statement that will further damage our once great nation.

The New York Times, Washington Post, NBC, ABC, CBS, MSNBC, PBS and countless other leftist talking heads are complicit in the destruction of our country. They think accusing and even lying will somehow benefit them and turn our nation into a socialist republic. The Welfare State will soon end. There will only be two classes of people, the haves and have not!

Remember you've become the propaganda machine for a movement that is hateful and deadly. You seek to remove any markings of our past and replace it with yours. History will not be changed no matter what you burn, tear down or destroy, what you erect in place of these monuments, rename or state as fact that maybe purely fiction or outright lies.

Media isn't journalism any longer but the left continues to print stories and spout news that has been read over the phone, received from anonymous sources and even made up by their own corrupt hearts and none of it verifiable. Once you get what you think you want the hornets nest will die and you won't have advertisers or the revenue from them. No one will be able to buy your products and all of you will be reduced to one propaganda network for a socialist government that will always know better than it's own people.

Our country was founded with religion in mind and that everyone should have the right to worship in their own way. We are the melting pot for the World but it seems that others come to this country now and assume they can impose their believes on everyone else. We are the melting pot but you must melt in with us not the other way around! Sharia law or any custom that's Islamic or any other religion that harms another, society or culture in anyway is not welcome and should not be tolerated in our nation. Under the guise of political correctness we allow it and even protest against those who oppose it!

Corporations who said they wanted a business friendly President now only want to trample him because they think it will save them in the end. These mighty leaders of industry have no idea that the President is not the one buying the stuff they sell. He was willing to help them in the face of  criticism from Liberals who say he's for Big Business and against the little man. You pander to the few who yell the loudest without realizing you're sealing your own fate. Once our country becomes the Russia of old how much of your goods and services will you sell to the have not's?

Our Political Leaders, NAACP, ACLU, KKK, Antifa, Black Lives Matter, Black Panthers, White Supremacist Groups have become a part of the hornets nest and are assisting in the destruction of our country. You all shout racism but offer favoritism to those you claim to represent. Aren't they the same thing?

Republicans, we gave you all levels of government like you asked and you accomplish nothing. All politicians are the same, only worried about themselves and re-election. Public office was meant for service to the country not a career for a bunch of idiots! Now you want to tell the President what to do? America told the President what to do and not any of you! All of you are traitors to this country.  We put up with Barack Obama tearing this country apart for 8 years and a lot of Republican leaders said nothing because he's black and were afraid of being labeled a racist by the left but now you've been labeled a traitor by your own constituents.

I served my country proudly. Why couldn't everyone do the same? This will end horribly for the entire country and our leaders will have no one to blame but themselves. Instead of standing behind the President to get things done you have created turmoil where nothing will be achieved but anger, division, destruction and hate! We will never be the same country after this is all said and done. I wouldn't be surprised to see another uncivil war that all of you created! You had a chance to crush Liberals but you're choosing to crush the one man that AMERICA ELECTED to change the direction of this shit cart rolling down hill. We will remember 2018 and don't think that you will get re-elected without the support of the President much less your own constituents!

The President says something and it's not what some want and than he says what they want and it's not the way they wanted it said. Does any Liberal see that's unfair or are you so blinded by your own hate and anger that the only thing you know is "WE HATE TRUMP!". You protest hate and violence yet that is the mantra for your resistance movement. Almost every Antifa protest turns into destruction and violence against those not only protesting against them but ordinary citizens just standing around minding their own business.

The left says they seek justice, freedom of speech and liberties that they're afforded by our constitution yet they seek to silence those on college campuses throughout the country and with the support of most faculties who are teaching history and the constitution. I guess they interpret "and justice for all" as "and justice means just me". They can't even see past their own intolerance. It appears our universities have become hot beds for socialism and it's obviously taught in our schools. They have no discipline, morals or integrity. They don't want to be spanked, want to change their gender, protect other religions other than Christianity and by the way God is mentioned in the constitution not Ali!

Actors, sports figures and so called celebrities spout their anger against Conservatives not realizing if they didn't have the freedoms and liberties that were fought for by those same Conservatives they wouldn't have the right to say what they say or make the money they do today.

This is a coup attempt and not just against the President but against America and every legal citizen of our once great nation! I emphasize legal because illegal has become the new chic in America, We protect and give more to illegal aliens than our own citizens. Sanctuary cities are illegal and we all know this for a fact, yet the left thinks it's ok because they are the so-called resistance. Resisting what? The American Way I assume.

It is my hope that the good people of America will dig up and deliver death to a hornets nest that should've never been allowed to form in the first place! 


Sunday, August 13, 2017

Voynich Manuscript in Croatian

August 13, 2017

By Anna Morris, Co-Editor, FFOA News Network

   Everyone loves an old, unsolved mystery! This is especially true for lifelong insomniacs like me who have to while away hours before achieving unconsciousness, what normal people call sleep. I first heard about the Voynich Manuscript on Coast to Coast AM , a late night radio program. I lay awake imagining the drawings of "plumbing" and "naked bathing nymphs" described by the guest on the radio. When I finally got the internet I was finally able to see all the strange wonders of the 700 year text written by quill on vellum.

     About a year ago I greatly enlarged a few VM pages to see what the scribes actually meant to write. A first opinion was that the script is Latin--the same alphabet we write--with a little bit of Cyrillic. This first system I devised made a lot of words; when entered into a basic Google search these words were overwhelmingly Polish, frequently partial names of places and people.

     I am not a mathematical genius who can say, if you have enough of something concerning a problem, then mathematically you have to have the solution. I just figured I was getting too many Polish words to be completely wrong. For those of us who prefer words to numbers, "Where there is smoke, there is fire."

     Mathematic weakness aside, I entered the internet world in complete ignorance! It actually took a few months of Google-searching individual words and the real world purchase of a Polish dictionary before I found Google Translate. AHA! Polish to English at my fingertips!  The next problem was that the translator kept suggesting the words I entered were Croatian! (Language groups have certain patterns. That it looked like Polish and turned out to be Croatian is acceptable.) 

     Well, what kind of scripts or alphabets were scholars using in the area of Croatia, circa 1420 CE? The answer to that led to a plunge into Croatian Galgolitic and the cursive version of this system. One of my previous articles on the VM said, "The alphabet is a luxury." Indeed, any alphabet available today is standardized and understood and those facts mean more than we ever stop to think about.

     When the Voynich Manuscript was written there were many versions of the same alphabets and it is anyone's guess how individual writers decided how to use the available letters and characters. Almost all the letters, characters and ligatures in the VM can be found in other contemporaneous writings. I would absolutely disagree that the VM script is completely unknown as many claim.

     My step by step work is chronicled at on my thread "Voynich Mystery" so I will skip a bunch of the boring details here. Let the two graphics accompanying this article speak for themselves.

     I suppose most people looking at the VM pages containing multiple plants/herbs and their structures, expect to find names of plants. So far, I have mostly found descriptions of attributes of the plants. The graphics here are clips from Quire 19, page f102v1. The VM artists did a lot of strange things and looking for direction in the pictures is fairly useless, so when a translation absolutely defines something in a drawing, it most certainly helps validate any other translation work.

    The "bottom of the bird" translation was the first time I firmly believed I was accurately translating the VM. Anyone can see that the root structure on that Voynich plant is drawn like a bird's tail but since when did plant roots ever resemble the back end of a bird?  When VM scribes made phrases they seem in some cases to have run together several words without spaces. Using my system, the exact transliteration of this inscription is, "odnotijeptje". The translator worked it out as, "o dno ti je pt(i)je". The words can be separated in slightly different ways such as, "odno tije pt(i)je" which translates as, "about the bottom of the bird." In the end we have a drawing of a bird's tail and a comment about the bottom or underneath part of a bird.

     The other clip is less dramatic and I did not see the full impact until I found the two roots in "one twist", "jedno torsje." 

     For the record, I absolutely reject the idea the VM is a hoax or that it is gibberish with no meaning. The script and language were not always unknown. I believe the script was an attempt to simplify and standardize existing alphabets and systems of the time. In my opinion so-called Voynichese is a lot better than other systems available then. Why it never caught on and why there is no other exact example of the same script is still a mystery. As we translate the text hopefully there will be further clues to who wrote it and why. Due to the shapes of some of the letters I suggest connections to Split and Dubrovnik in Croatia.

     Many researchers suggest the VM was written by one person. I reject this idea since the writing varies greatly from page to page. Some scribes were more proficient than others. Some lapsed occasionally to use letters from other alphabets with which they have been more familiar. Occasionally a scribe even dotted an \i\ or \j\. All the little screw-ups are helpful.

     Earlier this year the Beinecke Library which houses the actual Voynich Manuscript, released a facsimile of the text in book form. In July of this year, The Guardian had an interesting article about Stephen Skinner's forward to this facsimile edition. [1]

     Skinner, according to this article, "draws evidence for his theory of the author's identity from a range of illustrations in the manuscript." The scholar's theory, explained in The Guardian, is that the VM drawings of naked ladies in communal baths, accompanied by other drawings of plumbing, depict Jewish use of purification bathing in mikvahs and concern about clean water for those ritual pools. 

     The article says Skinner has identified a Jewish physician based in northern Italy as the writer of the VM. In my opinion this is one of the few new interesting findings on the subjects though I cringe just a bit when John Dee, "the Tudor mystic" gets drawn into the plot.[1]

     The Guardian article also notes that though Catholic Europe was under the Inquisition, Jewish doctors were in demand for their superior knowledge. To this I would add that though officially Roman Catholic, Poland had a dispensation from the pope that spared its population. Many religions, including Judaism and Islam, continued to flourish in this area that was free of persecution. The area around Croatia also had both eastern and western versions of Christianity. 

     Also mentioned in the same article is the swallowtail battlements illustrated in the VM and found to this day in castles in Northern Italy. I have found these same architectural features in pictures of Croatian castles. I do not see any reason to reject a Croatian origin for the VM in favor of northern Italy though the text was ultimately found in a monastery in the latter.

     There is a bit of enthusiasm online for the idea that the VM could be Jewish in origin. It is not overtly Christian in nature though on one page naked ladies shed mermaid tails and ascend through the plumbing until the topmost lady clutches a cross in what looks like clouds. (Mermaid is an old euphemism for prostitute.)

     Considering the ritual mikhva, Jews distinguish between living water and non-living water. Jesus of Nazareth spoke of living water. Living water as I understand it is water that flows, that moves, as opposed to water left to stagnate. The VM portrays two kinds of water, green and blue. The green is found in the "baths" and the blue seems to flow from above. This was one of the few things in the illustrations that made possible sense to me from the beginning.

     Coincidentally, concerning VM Jewishness, I recently viewed a video on religious history which used a picture of an ancient shekle for a cover page. The inscription on the shekle instantly looked like Voynichese to me so I searched for the alphabet that was used. I found Paleo-Hebrew and Aramaic, the first discontinued around the first century CE and the latter still in existence. One unusual Aramaic letter in particular is the shape of a  VM letter. It is a two part system for writing the letter yudh  (Y) in Aramaic which I have identified as Z in the VM. 

     Several Hebrew letters resemble the "big" letters in the VM. They are he, het, tet, tav, roughly H, I, th and T. Though VM letters resemble these Hebrew letters, the Hebrew values make absolutely nothing in the VM. Indeed one of the "big" letters I use as L is sometimes written in the VM using a Croatian Glagolitic version of L. Nevertheless the VM script was based on something, why not Hebrew?

     There are many issues with the long portions of text in the VM. For one thing there is no punctuation. (Amazingly I have seen some modern Croatian with no punctuation.) Croatian then and now did not need to put every single letter in every word. One who is fluent would know where to add needed letters for true meaning. Since I am nowhere near fluent I must stick with literal transliterations and complex explanations of my work. (The two clips produced here are excellent since the only addition suggested by the translator is one \i\ in pt(i)je. ) The vocabulary is limited and the same small words are used over and over from page to page. Some of it works out as instructions. One passage spoke of grinding "green" (leaves?), mixing with vinegar and drinking. Maybe the whole thing is a cookbook of sorts. 

     What is the Voynich Manuscript? My general idea is that it may be a fertility text, the physical mixed with astrology. I think too that some of it is moralistic, about good and bad behavior, perhaps related to reproduction. I believe the two introductory pages, at the very beginning of the work, speak of learning. 

     A complete translation will eventually reveal 700 year old knowledge that, like fine wine, has been exquisitely mellowed by age.